Ancient Incas used Quipus (pronounced key-poos) as both numerical notation, calendars and historical memory banks. With Quipus, Incan Civilization demonstrated a unique unity of thought and feeling that would remain fragmented for westerners until the rise of the internet. Non western civilizations had superior haptic sense, desiring a synoptic view of indigenous life.
Until 2005, the oldest quipus was dated at 650 A.D., until a westerner visiting the Incan city of Caral found an ancient quipus dated about 3,000 B.C.
Incan civilization didn't have extensive developed writing, nor papyrus or libraries. Using woven cloth and knots they reordered events and denoted logical numerical systems for reference. Knot types, positions, cord directions and levels all corresponded with color and spacing. Quipus needed interpretation so elaborate schools were developed to teach interpretation.
Quipus now dispels western hierarchies that civilizations must develop writing before mathematics! Civilizations can reach complex levels of social, material organization without written records.