The Etruscan civilization (/ᵻˈtrʌskən/) is the modern name given to a powerful, wealthy and refined civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC) until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century B.C.E with the Roman–Etruscan Wars.
Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 B.C.E, approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture.
The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, and Phoenicia. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands. The last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC.
The latest mitochondrial DNA study (2013) shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations, and are ancestral to the modern inhabitants of Casentino and Volterra. The study also excluded recent Anatolian connection.
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART- ETRUSCAN ART
ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS
The following is an excerpt from the Pyrgi tablets,
This temple and these statues are dedicated to Uni-Astre, built by the clanspeople. Tiberius Velianas the pleasing aedicula has given. That burial of his own by these priests with idols was encircled. For three years Churvar, with Her burnt offerings, with idols buried. During the reign of the chief, in Her hand would be brought forth. And with these Hermes idols, the year shall endure as the stars.
The Etruscan language (/ᵻˈtrʌskən/) was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Campania, Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls). Etruscan influenced Latin, but was eventually completely superseded by it. The Etruscans left around 13,000 inscriptions which have been found so far, only a handful of which are of significant length, some bilingual inscriptions with texts also in Latin, Greek, or Phoenician, and a few dozen loanwords, such as the name Roma (from Etruscan Ruma), but Etruscan's influence was significant.