The Inca Empire was established in the 13th century and was the world’s largest empire in the early 16th century. It was created as the last chapter of the Andean civilization, and scientists say it was one of the five civilizations in the world that were pristine. That is to say that they were indigenous, not just a derivative from other civilizations. Based on the Andean mountain range, at its peak it covered modern day Peru, large parts of Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile and small parts of southwest Columbia. Estimates say that 40.000 Incas had governed over 10 million subjects that spoke 30 different languages. Its last stronghold would be conquered by the Spanish Empire in 1572, ending the reign of the largest empire in the world at the time. Its capital was the city of Cusco, and its greatest leader was the ninth Sapa Inca, which meant son of the sun god, well known today as Pachacuti.
The History of The Incas and Their Amazing Empire
The Great Inka Road- Smithsonian
Terry Hunt & Carl Lipo finally resolved the Eco-cide that brought about the demise of Easter Island. After years of painstaking field research the resolution isn't apocalyptic as other authors have sought. Previous historians, geologists, and adventurers have tried to uncover the madness of how the inhabitants of this Island collapsed. Both Hunt & Lipo have brought extravagant mythology to an end; the Island didn't fall from civil war, but the inadvertant introduction of European germs was a factor. Human excess isn't a culprit either, the forests that collapsed introducing climate, soil erosion had its origin in the introduction of Polynesian rats that ate the seen saplings of indigenous plants, introducing ecocide. It only took decades, not centuries, but once started it was quick and lethal.
"The Statues that Walked" is now out from Free Press and it is great reading. Both archeologists have served their discipline well in finally putting to rest the demise of Easter Island.
Easter Island Statue Project:
Explore Easter Island Digitally
Easter Island History
Rapa- Nui People of Easter Island