Ever since the arrival of telescopes, scientists have observed something they cannot understand. When they observe spiral galaxies, they notice component stars in these galaxies move at different speeds. Because gravity is uniform, scientists could not account for these deficiencies. Simply put, gravitational effects observed don't match the amount of matter seen. The postulate of dark matter is becoming part of the standard model of explaining the universe.
Quantum physics concerns itself with constitutent components INSIDE the ATOM. The observer cannot find neutral ground from which to observe both location & speed of any particle. Because of this relativity of time & position, it cannot, by reason of math, be contained as an equation. This postulates two seemingly irreconcilable orders of reality that neatly coexist. The challenge is which perspective inside or outside the atom constitutes holistic 'REALITY'.
For Einstein, he postulated that any explaination of what goes on 'inside' the atom cannot be the full story. This is why he disagrees with proponents of quantum physics.
For today's quantum theorists, the problem of knowning both position and location of any particle sets up a fallacy known as "non-locality". For the late great quantum physicists Niels Bohr revealed that mathematical symbolic notions DO NOT REPRESENT REALITY, THEY ARE STATISTICAL PREDICTIONS, an attempt to guess either location or speed. This is why Einstein said, "God does not play dice with the universe."
Drive about 30km north-west of Amman, Jordan's captial city, and you arrive at a strange looking swimming pool that is home to the Islamic worlds first particle accelerator (synchrotron) called Sesame. The entire project began about 20 years ago but was continually stalled from the glacial geopolitical rivalries. Both Israel, Iran and the Palestinian Authority remain three of the nine projects members. Although they remain implacable enemies, their scientific teams gather in collaborative mein to study and probe the frontiers of physics: the structure of material science. Turkish teams work in tandem with Cyprian, Jordanian, Pakistani, Bahraining and Egyptian counterparts, all feverishly working to discern the impact of partical smashing.
The electron synchrotron are smaller than their proton counterparts such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva. The significance is startling because Sesame does not seek to replicate the Big Bang by smashing electrons but by studying the deep interior structure of materials themselves.
Here's how it works: the structure corrals electrons by giant magnets, as they emit radiation frequencies they are used to look into anything from metals to biological tissue. Synchrotron radiation is more intense than any other source of radiation, except nuclear fussion. Because it is safer and easier to control is it used to collect data from a smaller range of samples. Because it can penetrate matter it can demonstrate in pictoral images of high resolution, the smallest features of matter in materials.
The world has about 60 electron synchrotrons, there is only one in the Middle East. It only cost about $70 million to build because of Jordan's low labor costs. But it is a dream come true for many.
Some 25 years ago, a Nobel prize winner in physics called Dr. Abdus Salam examined the feasibility of an indigeous synchrotron for Islamic civilization. In 1997, two other physicists named Herman Winick and Gustov-Adolf Voss suggested moving one intact from Berlin to Jordan. BESSY I (one) was decommissioned and moved. In 2002, the Winick-Voss idea was scrapped in favor of building a much more powerful facility from scratch. Yet BESSY I lives on in Sesame, for it serves to boost electrons into their orbit before accelerated into their full speed in the main ring.
Using Einstein's famous equation of E=Mc2, where E is energy, M is mass and C represents the speed of light; Sesame's speed will reach 2.5bn electronvolts giving mass to electrons nearly 5,000 times their natural weight. The radiation they emit creates a beam of lines identical to x-rays.
Sesame will open with two beam lines. One will pipe infrared light through a microscope while the other passes x-rays through both oranic and inorganic samples. Sesame will read scrolls of antiquity to delicate to unfurl.
Sesame opens December 2016.
When Nobel Prize Laureate Dr. Richard Feynman spoke at CalTech in 1959, everyone thought he was referencing adjunct teaching, the title of his lecture "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom", instead he was thinking of manipulating atoms so they could carry information. He was anticipating the biological revolution that has consumed physics. He anticipated that the future implied smaller, not bigger. In his lecture, Feynman spoke of how the entire Encyclopedia Britannica could be written on the head of a pin. Interesting idea for 1959. Turns out physicists are doing it today.
Physicists at Tufts University covered a sheet of copper with chlorine atoms, by sliding pairs of atoms back and forth using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), the bits were arranged to form a byte, enough to encode a single letter upon an atom. The STM method permitted them to source 78 trillion bits per square centimeter, this is hundreds of times denser than state of the art hard drives.
The only problem was limiting the movement of atoms throughout this process. To slow their movement, Tufts dropped the temperature of the copper sheet to -196 degrees, the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Future problems involve solving how best to operate at warmer temperatures like room temperature.