Heirs to Forgotten Kingdoms: Journeys Into the Disappearing Religions of the Middle East by Gerard Russell.
A groundbreaking and comprehensive history of the Roman Peace from one of the leading historians of the ancient world.
Best-selling author Adrian Goldsworthy turns his attention to the Pax Romana, the famous peace and prosperity brought by the Roman Empire at its height in the first and second centuries AD. Yet the Romans were conquerors, imperialists who took by force a vast empire stretching from the Euphrates to the Atlantic coast. Ruthless, Romans won peace not through coexistence but through dominance; millions died and were enslaved during the creation of their empire.
Pax Romana examines how the Romans came to control so much of the world and asks whether traditionally favorable images of the Roman peace are true. Goldsworthy vividly recounts the rebellions of the conquered, examining why they broke out, why most failed, and how they became exceedingly rare. He reveals that hostility was just one reaction to the arrival of Rome and that from the outset, conquered peoples collaborated, formed alliances, and joined invaders, causing resistance movements to fade away.
Why this book?
Peace is always a rare and precious thing and this makes the “Roman Peace” all the more remarkable, and I wanted to understand how it came about. I wanted also to understand what the Roman Empire meant to the people who lived in it. What was it like for the other peoples in the ancient world who found themselves living next to the Roman Empire, or were incorporated into it, whether by force or choice? It is simplistic to demonize empires—just as it once was to celebrate them uncritically—and there is a danger of turning conquered peoples into passive and virtuous victims of imperialist aggression. The truth is more complicated, and looking at Roman power from the viewpoint of Romans and outsiders provides many relevant insights to our own world.
But wasn’t "Pax Romana" the peace imposed by the victors, whose conceit was that they were bringing civilization to barbarians?
The Romans fought a lot of wars, and never granted other peoples equal status. Other kingdoms and states were either allies or real or potential enemies. Peace made Rome and its allies safe. Only once they were well on their way to establishing a large and permanent empire did the Romans begin to talk of a duty to bring peace, order, and the rule of law to a wider world. This was not achieved solely or even primarily by force. People wanted to be Roman. Peace became a reality, even if imperfect.
Praise for Caesar:
"This book makes and insightfully explains the leap from Caesar the soldier and general to Caesar the statesman and nation builder. It's better than any book I've ever read on him, and more incisive."—Wall Street Journal
"An authoritative and exciting portrait not only of Caesar but of the complex society in which he lived."—Steven Coates, New York Times Book Review
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The Etruscan civilization (/ᵻˈtrʌskən/) is the modern name given to a powerful, wealthy and refined civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions (c. 700 BC) until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century B.C.E with the Roman–Etruscan Wars.
Culture that is identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 B.C.E, approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture.
The latter gave way in the 7th century to a culture that was influenced by ancient Greece, Magna Graecia, and Phoenicia. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BC the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands. The last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BC.
The latest mitochondrial DNA study (2013) shows that Etruscans appear to fall very close to a Neolithic population from Central Europe and to other Tuscan populations, and are ancestral to the modern inhabitants of Casentino and Volterra. The study also excluded recent Anatolian connection.
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART- ETRUSCAN ART
ENGINEERING AND AGRICULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS
The following is an excerpt from the Pyrgi tablets,
This temple and these statues are dedicated to Uni-Astre, built by the clanspeople. Tiberius Velianas the pleasing aedicula has given. That burial of his own by these priests with idols was encircled. For three years Churvar, with Her burnt offerings, with idols buried. During the reign of the chief, in Her hand would be brought forth. And with these Hermes idols, the year shall endure as the stars.
The Etruscan language (/ᵻˈtrʌskən/) was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Campania, Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls). Etruscan influenced Latin, but was eventually completely superseded by it. The Etruscans left around 13,000 inscriptions which have been found so far, only a handful of which are of significant length, some bilingual inscriptions with texts also in Latin, Greek, or Phoenician, and a few dozen loanwords, such as the name Roma (from Etruscan Ruma), but Etruscan's influence was significant.
“…'The construction of the Emperor's Road is thought to have taken place at the time of Emperor Hadrian's visit to the country, circa 130 CE [AD], or slightly thereafter, during the suppression of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 132-135 CE [AD].'
The presence of a milestone (a stone marking distances) bearing the name of the emperor Hadrian discovered nearby reinforces the idea that the road was built during the rule of Emperor Hadrian.
The emperor is best known for building walls around his colossal empire, including Hadrian's wall in Carlisle.
Coins from the Roman era were found sticking out between the paving stones of the road.
Among them, a coin depicting the prefect of Judea, Pontius Pilate dating back to 29AD and a coin from Year Two of the Great Jewish Revolt of 67AD were discovered.
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4296638/Roman-road-coins-2-000-years-ago-Israel.html#ixzz4bGeScVht
The Inca Empire, also known as the Inka Empire or Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political, and military center of the empire was located in Cusco in modern-day Peru. The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in the early 13th century, and the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572. The Inca succumbed to Pizarro, who had 168 men and 62 horses; not a single casualty.
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile, and a small part of southern Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects of Quechua were spoken. Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti—their sun god—and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama. The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun."
In 1914 the Ottoman Empire was depleted of men and resources after years of war against Balkan nationalist and Italian forces. But in the aftermath of the assassination in Sarajevo, the powers of Europe were sliding inexorably toward war, and not even the Middle East could escape the vast and enduring consequences of one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. The Great War spelled the end of the Ottomans, unleashing powerful forces that would forever change the face of the Middle East.
In The Fall of the Ottomans, award-winning historian Eugene Rogan brings the First World War and its immediate aftermath in the Middle East to vivid life, uncovering the often ignored story of the region's crucial role in the conflict. Bolstered by German money, arms, and military advisors, the Ottomans took on the Russian, British, and French forces, and tried to provoke Jihad against the Allies in their Muslim colonies. Unlike the static killing fields of the Western Front, the war in the Middle East was fast-moving and unpredictable, with the Turks inflicting decisive defeats on the Entente in Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Gaza before the tide of battle turned in the Allies' favor. The great cities of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and, finally, Damascus fell to invading armies before the Ottomans agreed to an armistice in 1918.
The postwar settlement led to the partition of Ottoman lands between the victorious powers, and laid the groundwork for the ongoing conflicts that continue to plague the modern Arab world. A sweeping narrative of battles and political intrigue from Gallipoli to Arabia, The Fall of the Ottomans is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the Great War and the making of the modern Middle East.
“An ancient Roman inscription, discovered on a stone tablet during an underwater excavation in Tel Dor, sheds light on a previously unknown governor of Judea during the time of the Bar Kokhba revolt.
Several months earlier, research students from the Coastal Archeological Laboratory at Haifa University discovered a large stone tablet etched with an ancient Roman inscription at the bottom of the Tel Dor reserve.
After consultations with the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Nature and Parks Authority, a decision was taken to remove the tablet from the sea as soon as possible to prevent damage to the inscription.
The excavation site was led by Prof. Assaf Yasur-Landau from Haifa University, who identified the stone inscription of seven lines. The rectangular stone is roughly 85 centimeters long and weighs about 600 kilograms.
"Apparently, this is the base of a statue from Roman times and according to the best of our knowledge, this is the longest inscription ever discovered underwater in Israel", explained Prof. Yasur-Landau. "Not only did we decipher for the first time the name of the governor who ruled Judea during the critical years before Bar Kokhba revolt, but this is the second time that the name Judea is mentioned in writing from the Roman period."
Dr. Gil Gambash, head of the Department of Maritime Civilizations at Haifa University, explained that the beginning of the study was to identify the name of the governor of Judea during that period. "On the tablet, the name Gargilius Antiquus is written along with his position; governor of Judea," explained Gambash. "The name of Antiquus is found on another inscription that was discovered at Tel Dor 70 years ago, but the section of the inscription dealing with the provincial governor did not survive."
Previous research posited that Antiquus was commissioner of the province of Syria, but in light of this new discovery, it is proved without a doubt that Gargilius Antiquus was the Roman governor of Judea in the years before the outbreak of the Bar Kokhba revolt in 131 CE.
The only other mention of the name Judea was on a tablet discovered in Caesarea, which also bore the name of a previous governor, Pontius Pilate.
“…Following a series of setbacks, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. The size of the Roman army amassed against the rebels was much larger than that commanded by Titus sixty years earlier - nearly one third of the Roman army took part in the campaign against Bar Kokhba. It is estimated that forces from 12 Legions participated in Severus' final campaign, including Legio X Fretensis, Legio VI Ferrata, Legio III Gallica, Legio III Cyrenaica, Legio XXII Deiotariana, Legio X Gemina, Legio V Macedonica, Legio XI Claudia, Legio II Traiana Fortis and Legio XII Fulminata, with a total force of 60,000–120,000 Roman soldiers facing Bar-Kokhba's rebels. While it is generally accepted that Legio XXII Deiotariana was destroyed during the revolt, it is not clear whether the legion's fall occurred in the initial stages of the revolt or during the decisive campaign of Sextus Julius Severus. A similar case may be assumed about Legio IX Hispana, whose disappearance during the second century is often attributed to this war.…”
“…After losing many of their strongholds, Bar Kokhba and the remnants of his army withdrew to the fortress of Betar, which subsequently came under siege in the summer of 135. Legio V Macedonica and Legio XI Claudia are said to have taken part in the siege. According to Jewish tradition, the fortress was breached and destroyed on the fast of Tisha B'av, the ninth day of the lunar month Av, a day of mourning for the destruction of the First and the Second Jewish Temple. Rabbinical literature ascribes the defeat to Bar Kokhba killing his maternal uncle, Rabbi Elazar Hamudaʻi, after suspecting him of collaborating with the enemy, thereby forfeiting Divine protection. The horrendous scene after the city's capture could be best described as a massacre. The Jerusalem Talmud relates that the number of dead in Betar was enormous, that the Romans "went on killing until their horses were submerged in blood to their nostrils."
Roman Inscription found near Battir mentioning the 5th and 11th Roman Legions.
According to a Rabbinic midrash, in addition to Bar Kokhba himself, the Romans executed eight leading members of the Sanhedrin (The list of Ten Martyrs include two earlier Rabbis): R. Akiva; R. Hanania ben Teradion; the interpreter of the Sanhedrin, R. Huspith; R. Eliezer ben Shamua; R. Hanina ben Hakinai; R. Jeshbab the Scribe; R. Yehuda ben Dama; and R. Yehuda ben Baba. The Rabbinic account describes agonizing tortures: R. Akiva was flayed with iron combs, R. Ishmael had the skin of his head pulled off slowly, and R. Hanania was burned at a stake, with wet wool held by a Torah scroll wrapped around his body to prolong his death.
Following the Fall of Betar, the Roman legions went on a rampage of systematic killing, eliminating all remaining Jewish villages in the region and seeking out the refugees. The historians argue for the exact period of Roman campaign, following the defeat in Betar. While some claim the resistance was broken shortly, others argue that pockets of Jewish rebels continued to hide with their families into the winter months of late 135 and possibly even spring 136. By early 136 however, it is clear that the revolt was defeated.…”
Introduction From the John Batchelor Show:
"In 1177 B.C., marauding groups known only as the "Sea Peoples" invaded Egypt. The pharaoh's army and navy managed to defeat them, but the victory so weakened Egypt that it soon slid into decline, as did most of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized world of the Bronze Age came to an abrupt and cataclysmic end. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the course of just a few decades. No more Minoans or Mycenaeans. No more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving economy and cultures of the late second millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, suddenly ceased to exist, along with writing systems, technology, and monumental architecture. But the Sea Peoples alone could not have caused such widespread breakdown. How did it happen?
In this major new account of the causes of this "First Dark Ages," Eric Cline tells the gripping story of how the end was brought about by multiple interconnected failures, ranging from invasion and revolt to earthquakes, drought, and the cutting of international trade routes. Bringing to life the vibrant multicultural world of these great civilizations, he draws a sweeping panorama of the empires and globalized peoples of the Late Bronze Age and shows that it was their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic collapse and ushered in a dark age that lasted centuries.
A compelling combination of narrative and the latest scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new light on the complex ties that gave rise to, and ultimately destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the Late Bronze Age--and that set the stage for the emergence of classical Greece."
From Class Oracle Media with Links for Further Exploration:
The current crisis enveloping Germany, western Europe and most of the littoral Mediterranean is mass migration of Muslims from the Syrian civil war. It is perhaps the only analogy to suffice how best to explain mass migrations of scale that lead to the destruction of the Bronze Age, an age noted for its agriculture, stone building and war. The entire edifice collapsed in 1177 B.C. as hordes of migrants from littoral Greece, and the eastern Mediterranean quickly moved toward fresh water civilizations along the interior of Egypt and Mesopotamia. As word spread of minimal geopolitical stability and its consequent of social mobility, work, trade and sustenance; hordes of peoples throughout the eastern Mediterranean beginning in modern day Italy began moving toward Egypt and Iraq. As the influx began, it fell to resident dynasties in Egypt and Mesopotamia to assimilate and inculcate growing hordes that ultimately brought about the collapse of the Bronze Age.
Told by Princeton University professor Dr. Eric H. Cline, faculty of classics & anthropology, his book, titled 1177 B.C. The Year Civilization Collapsed is remarkable in depth, range and erudition.
Smithsonian Magazine "World War Zero" brief look at the migrating hordes that brought down the Bronze Age.
Luwian Studies: Website devoted to migrant hordes that destroyed the Bronze Age.
Luwian Studies: Trojan War & Bronze Age Collapse
Luwian Studies: Map of Initial Invasion(s) & Raids of Sea Peoples