Similarly, modern cosmology is augmented by unsubstantiated, mathematically sophis¬ticated ideas — of the multiverse, anthropic reasoning and string theory. The multiverse idea postulates the existence of numerous other regions of space-time, to which we have no access and in which the cosmologi¬cal parameters have different values.
The anthropic argument is then often applied. It holds that our own region has the parameters it does (including those of dark energy and dark matter) because other, more likely values would not have allowed life to develop near a star like the Sun in a galaxy such as the Milky Way1–3. An overlooked problem with this argument is that, accord¬ing to one analysis4, life is 1,000 times more likely to exist 10 trillion years from now around stars that weigh one-tenth the mass of the Sun. This means that terrestrial life might be premature and not the most likely form of life, even in our own Universe4.
A vibrant scientific culture encourages many interpretations of evidence, argues Avi Loeb.