The Rhind Papyrus provides the best evidence for the history of early math among ancient Egyptians.
It is a scroll about a foot high and 18 feet long. It was discovered in a tomb in the city Thebes.
The source of the scroll is a man named Ahmes. Writing began in Egypt around 1650 B.C., the Rhind Papyrus is dated at 1680 B.C. It provides evidence involving fractions, addition, arithmetic progressions, building and accounting. We can deduce the beginnings of algebra, pyramid geometry and practical mathematics for surveying.
It is currently at the British Museum after being purchased by Alexander henry Rhind (1833-1863) a Scottish historian visiting the Luxor market in 1858.
BRITISH MUSEUM- RHIND MATHEMATICAL PAPYRUS
WIKIPEDIA- THE RHIND MATHEMATICAL PAPYRUS